1) Blight, David W., Frederick Douglass'Civil War. Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge. 1989

2) Durden, Robert F., The Gray and the Black. Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge.  1972

3) Franklin, John, From Slavery to Freedom. Alfred A. Knoff: New York. 1974

4) Lindsey, David, Americans in Conflict. California State University: Los Angeles. 1974

5) Parish, Peter J., The American Civil War. Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc.: New York. 1975