Barondess, Benjamin. Three Lincoln Masterpieces: Cooper Institute Speech, Gettysburg Address, Second Inaugural. Charleston: West Virginia, Inc., 1954.

Barton, William E. President Lincoln. Volume 2. Indianapolis: The Bobbs Merrill Company., 1933.

Randall, James G. Lincoln The President: Springfield To Gettysburg. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Company., 1964.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years And The War Years. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company., 1954.

Strozier, Charles B. Lincoln's Quest For Union: Public And Private Meanings. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1982.