We the People of the United States, in order to ... provide for
the common defence, ... do ordain and establish the Constitution
of the United States of America.
Art. 1, Sect. 7, Par. 1.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of
representative; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments
as on other bills.
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 1.
The Congress shall have power:
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 2.
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay
the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare
of the United States; ...
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 4.
To regulate commerce with foreign nations; ...
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 5.
To establish an uniform rule of naturalization; ...
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 11.
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high
seas, and offences against the law of nations;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 12.
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make
rules concerning captures on land and water;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 13.
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to
that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 14.
To provide and maintain a navy;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 15.
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 16.
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of
the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 17.
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia,
and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the
service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively,
the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
Art. 1, Sect. 8, Par. 19.
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested
by the Constitution in the government of the United States, or
in any department or officer thereof.
Art. 1, Sect. 9, Par. 1.
The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and
eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each person.
Art. 1, Sect. 9, Par. 2.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of ... invasion the public safety require
Art. 1, Sect. 9, Par. 5.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or
revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: ...
Art. 1, Sect. 9, Par. 7.
... No person holding any office of profit or trust under them,
shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present,
emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king,
prince, or foreign state.
Art. 1, Sect. 10, Par. 1.
No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation;
grant letters of marque and reprisal; ...
Art. 1, Sect. 10, Par. 2.
No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely
necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce
of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports,
shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; all
such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the
Art. 1, Sect. 10, Par. 3.
No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter
into any agreement or compact ,.. with a foreign power, or engage
in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as
will not admit of delay.
Art. 2, Sect. 2, Par. 1.
The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States,
when called into the actual service of the United States; ...
Art. 2, Sect. 2, Par. 2.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the
senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice
and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public
ministers and consuls, ...
Art. 2, Sect. 3.
... He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he
shall ... commission all the officers of the United States.
Art. 3, Sect. 2, Par. 1.
The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity,
arising under ... treaties; ... to all cases affecting ambassadors,
other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty
and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies ... between a State
or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.
Art. 3, Sect. 2, Par. 2.
In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and
consuls, ... the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
Art. 3, Sect. 3, Par. 1.
Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them
aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless
on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on
confession in open court.
Art. 3, Sect. 3, Par. 2.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason,
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or
forfeiture except during the life of the person attained.
Art. 4, Sect. 3, Par. 1.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; ...
Art. 4, Sect. 4.
The United States ... shall protect each [state] against invasion;
Art. 6, Sect. 1.
All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the
adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
Art. 6, Sect. 2.
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall
be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which
shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall
be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State
shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of
any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed
to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted
against one of the United States ... by citizens or subjects of
any foreign state.
Dr. Harold D. Tallant, Department of History, Georgetown College
400 East College Street, Georgetown, KY 40324, (502) 863-8075