"It is the greatest sorrow of my life.  I began the deception when I was too young to know right from wrong." ~~Margaret Fox

    Thirty-eight years later a confession slipped passed the mother of spiritualism.  October 21, 1888 was the confession of Margaret Fox.  She exposed her fraud as she gave a lecture at the New York's Academy of Music.  The rappings that had begun in Hydesville were being preformed by "snapping the joint of her big toe" (Ross 38).  Corinthian Hall was so big, that it helped out acoustically, and made the illusion that the rappings were coming from different parts of the building.  If Margaret had confessed her fraud a couple of years earlier, spiritualism could have failed in its early stages (Ross 40).

   Soon after Margaret's confession of fraud, Kate confessed that the rappings were also a fraud.  Leah bitterly resented her sisters for making the confessions.  Not only did she humiliate her, but it also cut off her source of money.

   Though the confessions spread like fire, most of the groups that followed them were quick to step in and accuse churches and newspapers to falsely confess.  Margaret and Kate realized the deeply rooted movement they had caused.  Even when they confessed that the rappings were shams the effects were not enduring.  This realization caused them to withdraw their confession and once more held sťances.

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Page created by Ashley Fields

Religion In America (History 338)

Georgetown College


Last updated: 3/22/01