A-B roll--two video sources played
simultaneously with the intention of mixing.
analog video formats--VHS, S-VHS, VHS-C, 8mm,
Hi-8, 3/4-inch Umatic, Betacam, Betacam-SP
analog v. digital formats--analog is a
continuous stream of information; digital is a series of discrete
signals positioned closely together to appear as if continuous.
.asf--video file type
sampling rate and bit depth--in order to get the best quality
audio for your video files, if you have a choice, choose 44,100 for
the sample rate, stereo, and 16-bit (CD quality).
Interleave (file type). These are generally larger than MPEG
files. PCs should be able to view either type. (MPEG is
Mac-compatible, whereas AVI files are not.)
bandwidth--the capacity of a network for
transferring a quantity of data within a given time
bit rate--the number of bits transferred per
second. Higher bit rate produces smoother video motion.
blue screen/green screen--a solid-color blue
or green screen used as the key color in compositing.
Everything that is blue (or green) is removed from the original
video image and another video image replaces the areas of solid blue
formats--(1) NTSC (National Television Standards
Committee), used primarily in North America, Japan and the
Philippines, has a frame rate of 30 (29.97) frames per second and
525 lines. (2) PAL (Phase Alternating Line), used
primarily in Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia and South
America, has a frame rate of 25 frames per second and 625
lines. (3) SECAM (Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire),
used primarily in France, Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia,
also has a frame rate of 25 frames per second and 625 lines.
camera angles--(1) high angle, looking down on the
subject--gives the viewer dominance, (2) straight-on angle--everyone
is on equal footing ... most common shot, (3) low angle, looking up
at the subject--gives the subject dominance.
moves--(1) zoom in or push: draws the
viewer into the shot making the main subject larger which forces the
viewer to focus on that aspect of the shot. (2) zoom out
or pull: makes the subject smaller, causing the viewer
to consider surrounding activity. (3) rack focus:
when a shot starts out of focus and slowly comes into sharp
focus. It can be used as a transition, and is often used to
suggest the passage of time. (4) pan left/right:
provides the viewer with more information about the scene or
location. The camera tripod does not move, only the camera
itself. (5) tilt up/down: provides more scene
information from a vertical point of view. Again, the camera
tripod does not move. (6) dolly in/out: in this
case the camera is physically moved closer to, or farther away, from
the subject. This movement tends to be used more by
professionals than the zoom. It approximates our own human way
of viewing scenes. A shot obtained with a moving camera
continuously reveals new perspectives, emphasizing space and depth.
(7) truck left/right: a very common move used to follow
talent. (8) arc: when the camera is rolled on a
curving path around an object. This shot works well in
advertising products, etc.
camera shots--(1) wide shot (ws) or
extreme wide shot (ews):
view from a distance, giving perspective; it is used to establish
location; it is too wide to capture any details. (2) medium shot
somewhere between a long shot and a close-up; used to provide more
information about what the action is, where it is taking place, and
who is involved. (3) close-up (cu):
principal subject appears large on screen, dominating the shot;
involves the viewer; heightens tension. (4) extreme close-up
(ECU): an extremely
tight shot of a subject, providing great detail. (5) over-the-shoulder
shot: view of the subject framed by another subject's
shoulder and back-of-the-head in the foreground.
capture--to record data such as audio, video,
or still images in a digital file format
clip--a video segment of a larger video file
codec--an abbreviation for compressor/decompressor--software or hardware used to compress/decompress digital media.
It is a coding method that facilitates the distribution and smooth
playback of digital video. The viewer must have the same codec
installed on the computer. It is usually included with
software such as Windows Media Player. Others are available
collection--a file where clips are stored
color temperatures (in degrees Kelvin ... oK):
|Clear skylight, no clouds
|Summer sun, blue sky
|Incandescent (100-watt bulb)
compositing--using more than one layer of
video to make a single image, such as when a TV weatherperson stands
in front of a map. In actuality, the person is probably
standing in front of a solid-color (blue or green) blank wall.
compression--reducing some of the digital
data in a video frame by discarding information the eye cannot see.
Compressed formats include: JPEG, MPEG, etc.
continuity--(1) visual: the logical
succession of recorded or edited events. For example, props
must be in the same place in every shot. (2)
directional: consistency in camera-subject relationships to
avoid confusing the viewer. For example, a train should
approach from the same side of the screen each time, rather than
from the left the first time and from the right subsequently.
contrast--differences between an image's
brightest and darkest areas.
cookie--a pattern placed in front of a
light. It may be a cityscape, jail bars, or anything to add
interest and/or realism to an otherwise boring background.
procedure whereby one video clip fades out as another smoothly fades
in. The film industry refers to this as a dissolve.
one shot and going immediately to the next with no transition.
defragment--it is not a bad idea to defrag your computer
before beginning a video project to ensure optimal performance.
Defragmenting removes unnecessary spaces between bits of information
so the disk operates more efficiently. To defragment, go to:
All Programs / Accessories / System Tools / Disk Defragmenter.
of field--the measurement of the area in front of and behind the
subject that is in focus, determined by the camera aperture setting
... typically, the subject in foreground is in focus while the
background is out of focus.
8--see Digital Video Formats.
formats--(1) MiniDV: The
majority of current digital camcorders use MiniDV cassettes that
record DV-format video. Though shaped much like a traditional VHS
video tape, MiniDV tapes are much smaller, measuring just 2 x 2.75
inches. MiniDV camcorders' current dominance of the market means
that this format will be the industry standard for the foreseeable
future. (2) Micro MV: Some
Sony camcorders use Micro MV tapes, which are smaller than MiniDV
tapes and record video in MPEG-2 format instead of the more common
DV format. The advantage of Micro MV tapes is their size: smaller
tapes allow for smaller camcorders, and models that use Micro MV
cassettes are the smallest and most portable of all. Micro MV
tapes are more expensive than MiniDV cassettes, however. (3) Mini
DVD-R and DVD-RAM: A small number of camcorders use
3-inch Mini DVD-R and DVD-RAM discs instead of digital videotape.
While the prospect of being able to record video and then play it
directly from a DVD player is appealing, this format has a number of
drawbacks. DVD-R discs must be specially formatted by the camcorder
before they can be played back on a home player, after which they
are locked and no more information can be stored on them. (4) Digital
8: Digital8 camcorders record digital video onto analog
(non-digital) 8mm videotapes, giving users all the advantages of
digital video while still using inexpensive analog tapes. These
camcorders are bulkier than DV camcorders, however, and likely to
grow less popular as consumers continue to adopt the digital-only
MiniDV format. Digital
8 is a good choice, however, if you want to upgrade to
digital from an 8mm or a Hi8 camcorder. Features are pretty much the
same as a MiniDV camcorder, with one key advantage: Digital8 can
play back your old 8mm and Hi8 videos (analog).
dissolve--an image transition
effect of one picture gradually disappearing as another appears.
camera mount on wheels enabling smooth movement in any direction.
drop-frame timecode--While the NTSC frame rate is frequently
rounded up to 30 frames per second in conversation, technically it
is 29.97 frames per second. The first two (of the 30) frame
codes are skipped each minute, except for every tenth minute.
In B&W TV days it actually was an even 30 frames per second.
When broadcasting went to color more bandwidth was needed. The
"color" info is included in the space produced by the skipped
frames, keeping both color and B&W formats compatible.
DVD (digital versatile disc)--has similar formats as CDs ...
DVD-R (can be recorded only once), DVD-RW (can be recorded, erased
and re-recorded). You must be sure that you use discs that are
compatible with your DVD burner: DVD-R/RW (made by Apple,
Hitachi, Panasonic, Pioneer, and a few others) or DVD+R/RW
(made by Dell, HP, Sony, Yamaha, and few others), i.e., be sure to
match the plus or the minus.
blur, brightness decrease, brightness increase, ease in, ease out,
fade in from black, fade in from white, fade out to black, fade out
to white, film age old, film age older, film age oldest, film grain,
grayscale, hues (cycles entire color spectrum), mirror horizontal,
mirror vertical, pixelate, posterize, rotate 90, rotate 180, rotate
270, sepia tone, slow down half, smudge stick, speed up double,
files are very hungry. On average, one can anticipate
using about 3.6MB of space per second. A five-minute clip will
use about 1GB of space. Then, there's also the "work" space on
the hard drive that you'll need for editing. If your project
is a 10-minute video, you'll need about 2GB of disk space just for
storage. In terms of total work space, multiple by four.
So, you would need approximately 8GB of work space on your computer
to edit a 10-minute video.
firehosing--panning the camera back and forth
and up and down to follow motion, as if trying to squirt water on a
fire ... NOT a desirable technique.
fire wire--see IEEE
frame--one of many
sequential images that make up video. Higher frame rates
typically produce smoother movement in the picture.
frame--a single frame of video frozen like a still photo.
put in front of or behind the subject to establish location.
For example, one could fake a restaurant set by having the name of
the restaurant painted on a piece of glass and shooting through the
glass on the first shot.
Digital Video Formats.
IEEE 1394 or FireWire--(Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers) a high-speed serial bus that allows enhanced
computer connectivity for a wide range of devices (capable of
transfer rates up to 400MB/sec). USB 2.0 allows transfer rates
of 480 MB/sec.
female socket on hardware, such as a computer or video equipment,
that can accept a plug for circuit connection.
J cut (split edit)--when the audio from the
next scene starts early (not a "jump cut").
cut--when, in editing, a subject or object is made to magically
vault to a different location on the screen.
(split edit)--when the audio from the current scene continues
into the next video scene.
lavaliere--a small mic inconspicuously
attached to the clothing of someone speaking on camera.
lens mask--a pattern placed in front of the
lens, such as "binoculars," so that the viewer sees what
the character sees while looking through binoculars.
key light: the principal source of light on a subject,
normally positioned slightly off center and angled to provide shadow
detail. (2) fill light: secondary lighting used
to reduce or eliminate the shadows of the key light. The fill
light is usually placed midway between the camera and the
subject. (3) back light: illumination from
behind, which creates a sense of depth. Ideally, this
three-point lighting system imitates natural outdoor lighting.
(types)--(1) fluorescent: depending upon the bulb,
can give off good, soft, white light. Some bulbs give off a
green or blue hue and should be avoided. Also, some
fluorescent fixtures produce a hum that can produce audio
problems. (2) incandescent: these are the
"everyday" light bulbs and tend to give off a reddish hue
on video. They are not as consistent as halogen bulbs.
(3) halogen: while these are incandescent lights, they
burn at a much higher temperature and give off a brighter, more
consistent light over their lifetimes. Halogen bulbs work well
for shooting video.
manual focus--zoom in tight on something to
set the focus, then all ranges will be in focus.
micro MV--see Digital Video Formats.
mini DV--see Digital Video Formats.
mini DVD-R and DVD-RAM--see Digital Video
model release--an agreement to be signed by
anyone who appears a video. Typically, the agreement specifies
the event, date, compensation provisions, if any, and the rights
pattern--video "artifacts" that occur when recording
an object that has many thin, parallel lines, such as when someone
is wearing a striped shirt or tie ... not cool.
simple, one-legged camera mount.
.mswmm--the file name extension used when
Movie Maker projects are saved
nonlinear editing--the digital "cut and
paste" method of editing that is possible on a computer, allowing
scenes to appear in any order ... v. linear editing,
which must be done in chronological order via dubbing from one
machine to the next.
NTSC--(see broadcast formats)
PAL--(see broadcast formats)
pan--a camera move where the camera base
position remains unchanged and the camera rotates for a panoramic
view of the scene.
photographing a CRT monitor/TV--one
must use a shutter speed of 1/30 or slower to avoid the "black line"
on the screen due to video frame speed (30 frames per second).
post production--any type of video
production activity that occurs following the initial recording.
POV--Point of View, how the camera sees the
shot. (1) First Person: shooting from one
character's point of view, which gives the viewer a feeling of
intimacy with the character. Actors can talk to the camera
since it is one of the characters. (2) Second Person:
shooting from the point of view of an unseen companion; camera is
placed alongside the character. Eye contact with the camera is
never made. Gives a feeling of being "with" the
character without being the character. (3) Third
Person: shooting from the point of view of a detached,
unseen observer. Eye contact with the camera is never made
since the observer is invisible. This is the most
frequently-used POV; shots tend to be medium to wide. Most
projects combine all three points of view.
progressive download--faux streaming.
Rather than downloading an entire file before it plays, the software
begins playing it as soon as enough information has reached the
player. Nothing special is needed. The player software
does the work.
project file--the file that contains all the
information about the files that have been imported into or captured
in the current "project." Project files have the .mswmm
rack focus--to change the focus during the
shot, e.g., when a shot begins out of focus and becomes in focus.
It can suggest the passage of time.
RCA jack--probably the most common jack found
on camcorders. It's round and has a smooth outside barrel with
a 1/8-inch hole in the center.
reflector--a device, such as a sheet of white poster board or
crumpled aluminum foil, used to provide indirect lighting on a
rule of thirds--relates
to the concept that it is more interesting when a subject, or the
primary point of interest, appears off-center. The screen is
conceptually divided into thirds both horizontally and
vertically. Wherever the imaginary lines cross is
theoretically a good area for a focal point.
ratio--specifies the aspect ratio of saved movies, i.e., the
relationship of width to height, such as 16:9 (widescreen) or 4:3
camcorder shutter speed is 1/60.
SMPTE time code--(pronounced
"simp-tee") developed by the Society
of Motion Picture & Television Engineers (SMPTE), this is the
standard digital code used to synchronize sight and sound.
special effects--effects added to video
footage, such as fade-ins, fade-outs, grayscale, film aging, screen
split--to divide a video (or audio) file into
split edit--see J cut and L
body-mounted camera support that enables extremely smooth camera
motion regardless of the activity of the operator. For
example, the camera operator could climb stairs and the camera would
glide smoothly through the process.
storyboard--a series of cartoon-like sketches
that illustrate key shots--used during the planning stages of a
video shoot. Each scene has corresponding information related
to audio, etc. Also, in video editing software, that portion
of the screen where clips and their transitions, etc., can be seen.
tape protection--to prevent a digital video
tape from being overwritten, flip the small mechanical switch on the
back of the cassette.
S-video--a process whereby the chrominance
and luminance portions of the picture are transmitted separately,
thereby avoiding picture quality degradation in analog video. It results in a
vastly superior picture. It requires an S-video cable.
telephoto lens--a camera lens that can
capture closeup images from a considerable distance.
timeline--the area of the user interface that
shows the timing and arrangement of files or clips that make up a
transitions (in Movie Maker)--includes: bars, bow
tie horizontal, bow tie vertical, checkerboard across, circle,
circles, diagonal box out, diagonal cross out, diagonal down right,
diamond, dissolve, eye, fade, fan in, fan out, fan up, filled V
down, filled V left, filled V right, filled V up, flip, heart, inset
down left, inset down right, inset up left, inset up right, iris,
keyhole, page curl up left, page curl up right, pixelate, rectangle,
reveal down, reveal right, roll, shatter in, shatter right, shatter
up left, shatter up right, shrink in, slide, slide up center, spin,
split horizontal, split vertical, star 5 points, stars 5 points,
sweep in, sweep out, sweep up, wheel 4 spokes, whirlwind, wipe
narrow down, wipe narrow right, wipe normal down, wipe normal right,
wipe wide down, wipe wide right, zigzag horizontal, zigzag vertical
hide parts of a file or clip without deleting them from the original
source. Files and clips can be trimmed by adjusting the start or end
trim points. There are two possible trim points, of
course: start trim point, and end trim point.
name of Nastassja Kinski's dog in the movie Terminal Velocity,
but also, a three-legged camera mount.
video file types supported by Movie Maker--.asf,
.avi, .m1v, .mp2, .mp2v, .mpe, .mpeg, .mpg, .mpv2, .wm, and .wmv
white balance--a setting on many camcorders
enabling the camera to determine what "white" is in
lighting conditions that may not be ideal. To set the white
balance, one must use a piece of perfectly white cardboard or
media file types--depending on content and purpose, Windows
Media files use a variety of file name extensions, such as: .wma, .wme,
.wms, .wmv, .wmx, .wmz, or .wvx
.wma--Windows Media Audio (file type)
Media Video (file type)
XLR / Cannon plug--a
three-pin plug normally found on quality microphones.
the focal length of the camera, bringing the subject into and out of
close-up range. The camera itself does not move.