Lowell Mason
The Father of Music Education in America
GEORGETOWN
C    O    L    L    E    G    E

Music 314
Foundations & Principles of Music Education

Dr. Peter LaRue, Instructor

Handout - Talking Points #10

Popular Methodologies of Today
~ Orff
~ Kodaly
~ Dalcroze
~ Suzuki

There follows some basic information concerning the life, times and methodologies of Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze and Suzuki. These are the four primary methodologies which are utilized in the teaching of primary-age students. Hopefully these notes will amplify and augment our in-class discussions and provide a valuable resource for your future teaching

C
arl Orff [1895-1982]
-German composer and pedagogue
introduced to the world a dynamic process which could ignite a fire in the imaginations and fantasies of children, inviting them into the world of music

-Orff did not set out to develop a program of music education
-Orff did not set out to develop special instruments for class
-Orff's work for schools the "Orff Schulwerk"
-began teaching in Munich in the 1920's at this time schools for training teachers in gymnastics and dance were popular.
-Orff , influenced by the works of Dalcroze started the "Guntherschule" in conjunction with dancer Dorothee Gunther
-combined the study of music with gymnastics/dance
-from this union, Orff would develop his unique concept of music education
-during World War II "Guntherschule" was destroyed
-after the war, government wanted Orff to focus on music ed
- began experimental classes at the Mozarteum in Salzburg
-developed five volumes of Musik for Kinder, became the core of the "Schulwerk"
-today the Orff Institute at Salzburg offers special training for teachers from throughout the world 
-Orff referred to his curriculum as elemental music pertaining to the elements, primeval, basic -intended for learning to be through active participation, movement, music and speech
-principal goal was to lead children to create their own music

Goal of "Orff-Style" Programs is the development of children who are comfortable with music
-develop children who can play, improvise and create music
-pathway to this is with simple instruments

Essentially ...
~ everyone has a need to create/express
~ via simple instruments, pentatonic scale - success may be guaranteed

-as a composer - Carmina Burana, music for 1936 olympics, 1948 radio programs began: children performing for children many, many listened to the radio programs - need for instruments
-rise of Studio 49 [Klaus Becker, a cabinet maker by profession]
-based instruments on high quality Indonesian Gamelan excellent quality, quality materials, very expensive-continued rise of the "Orff-Schulwerk"

The Instruments:

Very often, the Orff method is associated with the use of percussion instruments. These are fundamental to the purposes and aims of the Orff method, and often, these days are just called "Orff Instruments". The main families of these instruments are divided into three primary categories:

xylophones: wood bars
metallophones: metal bars
glockenspiel: metal bars

each of these categories is then divided into "voices": soprano, alto,  [tenor] bass 

In addition to these instruments, the following percussion instruments are used: cymbals, triangles, wood blocks, jingle clogs etc. - sometimes a single-barred instrument called the bordun [sometimes the actual drone pattern is called the bordun also] is used for an ostinato pattern or harmonic foundation.Bars are removable so only certain tones may be used

Orff, as with others starts: Sol-me, then adds - re, do, la

Primary Goals of Orff:
1. task of music education to lead students to improvise/compose
**this allows the students to develop thinking creatively
2. train teachers to provide opportunities for improvisation the "Schulwerk" has basic guidelines and plans
3. rather than provide "set" examples students/teacher encouraged to: experiment, manipulate and change musical materials

Summary:        
1. feeling precedes understanding, need active participation
2. elemental approach: grow with growth
3. singing of pentatonic scales [sol-mi chants]
4. body movement: snapping, clapping, patschen and stamping
5. integration of singing, movement, playing instruments
6. use of well-designed instruments
7. development of the creativity in the student

Zoltan Kodaly
[1882-1967]

Kodaly: Hungarian composer and musicologist - known for his choral works - music education methodology named for him - goal was to strengthen the music education of all Hungarians - Kodaly method was not invented, but rather developed by ZK - took elements of:

solfege from Italy and from Dalcroze
rhythm syllables from Cheve of France
hand singing from Curwen of England

ZK did however, weave into one fabric which is named for him

Main Points:
- believed human voice was key to music education
- emphasized development of literacy through singing
- emphasized use of folk songs from own culture - "Mother Tongue" concept
- believed that music education should follow natural development of the child

Lois Choksy, noted Kodaly authority summarizes ZK's basic philosophy:

a. music literacy is something everyone can and should enjoy
b. singing is the foundation of all music education
c. music education must begin with the very young
d. folk songs of one's own culture must be the vehicle for instruction
e. only music of the highest artistic value should be used

The work of Zoltan Kodaly has greatly influenced the Hungarian public, with an unusual amount of musical ensembles and groups flourishing throughout the country. Singing is widely respected and oft-done. Today there are more than 150 singing schools in Hungary and the use of the Kodaly method and principles have spread to Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Africa, most of Europe and North and South America.  One of the best known facets of the Kodaly method is the hand signs which are based on the principles of Curwen.

Emile Jaques-Dalcroze [1865‑1950]

All of the methodologies [i.e. Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze or Suzuki] should be viewed as "tools" for our teaching. Essentially each approach is striving to broaden the musical horizons of students as they have meaningful experiences with and about music. Skills in performing, creating and listening to music are pivotal to these four approaches. As you grow and develop, you will hopefully choose an eclectic approach for your teaching, drawing from these methodologies freely. In many cases, the finest teachers have always followed these methodologies, without even knowing the name of Orff, Kodaly, etc.

EJD was a Swiss educator who developed a music curriculum which included eurhythmics, solfege and improvisation. These facets were designed to aid the development of muscular sense, the inner ear and a form of creative expression. It was the goal of Dalcroze to find ways which would help his students develop their abilities to feel, hear, invent, sense and imagine, connect, remember, read, write, perform and interpret music.

EJD was educated at Swiss and Viennese conservatories and gained a sound, traditional musical background. His mother was a Pestalozzian music teacher, and without doubt, this influenced ways in which EJD would eventually move. At age 25, EJD was appointed professor of harmony and solfege at the Conservatory of Music in Geneva. This was his first contact with a large number of students and he quickly discovered that though many of the students were technically advanced on their instruments, they were unable to feel and express music. They were unable to deal with the simplest rhythmic problems and often their sense of pitch and tonality was faulty. He subsequently spent the rest of his life discovering ways which he could facilitate his students' learnings and understanding about music. EJD always tried to move away from the dullness and boredom of "disconnected" musical learning.

Unlike Kodaly who was a "weaver" of the elements of others [i.e. hand signs from Curwen of England, rhythm syllables from Cheve of France, etc.] Dalcroze was forging new ground for his students at nearly every turn. His teachers included Faure and Bruckner. He discovered in his work that the students themselves were the instruments; not voices, or pianos, or trumpets, etc. He became convinced that through responsiveness of the entire body, a true "feeling" of music could be taught. He also discovered that though some young students were unable to tap or keep a steady beat, that they, were however, able to walk or run in tempo. This became a hallmark of his innovative teaching methodology.

The hallmarks of the complete Dalcroze method are:
a. Eurhythmics
b. Solfege
c. Improvisation

Eurhythmics is Greek for "good rhythm": there are four types:
- follow
- quick reaction
- interrupted canon
- canon:

Dalcroze Activities and Methodology

Of great  import to these methods are moving and singing as basic skills ...

Inner Hearing:
the ability to internalize feelings of movement and sound

Kinesthesia:
the sensation of movement is converted into feelings which is then sent to the brain, which converts information to knowledge

EJD's  "Thirty‑Four Elements of Rhythm":
[i.e. time‑space‑energy‑weight‑balance; regular beats; tempo; nuances of tempo; dynamics; nuances of dynamics; articulations; accents; measure; duration; etc.]

EJD's "Movement Vocabulary"
Movements in Place
examples: clapping, nodding, snapping, etc
Movements in Space
examples: skipping, walking, running, etc

Totality of Movement Experience: [clapping example on slow beat]
a. preparation
inhale/lifting of arms away from body/prep beat

b. attack
the instant of clapping hands together/exhale                  

c. prolongation
pulling hands apart to feel and measure kinesthetically the beat

d. return to preparation
lifting arms outwards/inhale for recycle of energy

Two Dalcroze‑Like Exercises

Exercise One: Dynamics: [Follow]
needs: class members, drum, beater, movement vocabulary

Step One:
instructor indicates that speaking will be minimal, asks the class to follow what the instructor does‑instructor starts to walk around the classroom, moderate tempo, moderate‑well‑placed  steps, hands folded [as if praying] ensures everyone is on board: then at same tempo, stomp feet, hands outstretched‑palms outward, make sure everyone is on board, then at same tempo, tip‑toe, bend down‑crouch, cross arms, then at same tempo, resume original stance, regular step, hands folded.

Step Two:
instructor picks up drum and beater, asks the class to listen, and respond to music with appropriate gestures from the three possible options. review motion options, very important to maintain the steady beat/pulse, then begin, at first use the same order as was originally taught, then vary as necessary.

Exercise Two: 4/4 versus 3/4 [Quick reaction]
needs: class members, piano, movement vocabulary

Step One:
instructor with minimal language, indicates 4/4 conducting pattern and 3/4 conducting pattern, with class in place, example on blackboard perhaps, ensure that everyone is onboard, then have everyone follow instructor walking in circle as they count beats, use both 4/4 and 3/4, start on left foot, always extra stomp on down beat, ensure that everyone is on board, keep steady tempo, then add conducting patterns to the walking, keeping the emphasis on the down beat, make sure everyone is on board, then explain they are going to have to listen to the piano and "quickly react" with appropriate motion to what they are going to hear.

Step Two:
review the movement vocabulary, then keeping a steady beat start playing on the piano a blues progression in b flat, then at some juncture change to waltz feel, using b flat/f oom‑pah‑pah feel, make sure everyone is on board, then explain once again that the students should respond to what they hear, alternate patterns.

Shinichi Suzuki
Background: Suzuki's father owned a violin factory, and as a boy he learned about violins and how to play them. His study also included eight years of training in Berlin in the 1920's. Prior to WW II Suzuki with his three brothers formed a string quartet which performed actively in Japan. Suzuki was also involved in teaching activities during this time. During the course of the WW II the family violin factory was destroyed. Following the war, Suzuki turned his attention to teaching. Little is known, or attention was given to his efforts in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Some reports of his amazing program was brought to the attention of the world at large by Pablo Casals, eminent cellist, he went to Japan to study with and visit with Suzuki.

In 1958, his amazing accomplishments as a teacher were first presented in this country at a meeting of the American String Teachers Association at the Oberlin Conservatory. At this time a film was shown of approximately 750 Japanese children playing Bach's Concerto for Two Violins. The following year, John Kendall, who became a noted authority on the Suzuki method traveled to Japan to see Suzuki at work. It was in 1965 [not 1964 as reported in the Hoffer Text] when Suzuki and ten of his students were presented at the National MENC Convention in Philadelphia. The students ranged from the ages of 10‑14. The impact of their performance was astounding, as none had ever heard players at such a young age play so musically and so well. At this point, the saga of Suzuki generally becomes very well known.

In the last three decades hundreds of Suzuki workshops have been held displaying and explaining the method. Numerous performances have been staged of extremely young students performing at an unbelievable level on the violin. The method has also been transferred to piano, as well as other instruments, and the ideas of Suzuki have been very influential to our profession for some years. As with all methods, there are some "true" believers and some "skeptics". Points for and against will be illuminated.

Basic Influences:          
a. Pestalozzi
1. teach sounds before signs
2. lead student to observe by hearing/imitating/comparing

b. mother‑tongue concept
1. native language learned through imitation
2. only after extensive vocabulary‑ written symbols

Basic Concepts:
a. instruction done within the family unit - all instruction done together/nurturing
b. start at an early age - exposure to good recordings - violin instruction (3) or younger - stringed instruments come in 1/4, 1/2, sizes
c. basic method is rote imitation - students hear/then attempt to imitate
d. all music performed is memorized - reading music not an issue at first
e. all learning is done thoroughly - absolute attention given to detail

Basic Advantages:        
a. incredible ability level possibilities
b. exposure to excellent music at an early age
c. work of family unit together

Basic Concerns:           
a. too much emphasis put on rote imitation
b. learning notational system much too late
c. American family differs from Japanese
d. general cultural differences